1. 命令行参数

-v,–verbose                 详细模式,如果命令执行成功,输出详细的结果(-vv –vvv -vvvv)
-i PATH,–inventory=PATH          指定host文件的路径,默认是在/etc/ansible/hosts(生产环境经常用到)
-f NUM,–forks=NU            NUM是指定一个整数,默认是5,指定fork开启同步进程的个数。
-m NAME,–module-name=NAME           指定使用的module名称,默认是command
-m DIRECTORY,–module-path=DIRECTORY     指定module的目录来加载module,默认是/usr/share/ansible,
-a,MODULE_ARGS              指定module模块的参数
-k,-ask-pass                提示输入ssh的密码,而不是使用基于ssh的密钥认证
-sudo                           指定使用sudo获得root权限(生产环境经常用到)
-K,-ask-sudo-pass               提示输入sudo密码,与–sudo一起使用 (生产环境经常用到)
-u USERNAME,-user=USERNAME          指定移动端的执行用户
-C,-check                       测试此命令执行会改变什么内容,不会真正的去执行

2. command模块测试环境

[root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -a "pwd"
192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
/root

192.168.3.60 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
/root

 [root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -m command -a "pwd"    #-m command 原来是可以省略的,ansible 默认模块就是command
 192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
 /root

 192.168.3.60 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
 /root

3. 再用ping模块

#-f 参数用法
[root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -m ping -f 1    #all 表示hosts里面所有主机 -m 调用模块 -f 指定同步进程数
192.168.3.60 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}
192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}
#-C参数用法
[root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -m ping -f 1 -C  
192.168.3.60 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}
192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}

4. user模块

[root@temp01 ~]# ansible db -m user -a 'name=DBA uid=505 home=/home/dba shell=/sbin/nologin'
192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,
    "comment": "",
    "createhome": true,
    "group": 505,
    "home": "/home/dba",
    "name": "DBA",
    "shell": "/sbin/nologin",
    "state": "present",
    "system": false,
    "uid": 505
}
[root@temp01 ~]# ansible db -m user -a 'name=DBA state=absent'    #state属性有:present表示添加,absend表示删除,state属性默认是present
192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,
    "force": false,
    "name": "DBA",
    "remove": false,
    "state": "absent"
}

修改用户密码

[root@temp01 ansible_playbook]# ansible all -m shell -a 'echo "123456" | passwd  foo --stdin'
192.168.3.60 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
Changing password for user foo.
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
Changing password for user foo.
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

看看下面这个坑

[root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -m cron -a "name=cat minute='*/1' job='ls /root'"
192.168.3.70 | FAILED! => {
    "changed": false,
    "failed": true,
    "msg": "Aborting, target uses selinux but python bindings (libselinux-python) aren't installed!"
}
192.168.3.60 | FAILED! => {
    "changed": false,
    "failed": true,
    "msg": "Aborting, target uses selinux but python bindings (libselinux-python) aren't installed!"
}
[root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -m copy -a "src=/etc/ansible/hosts dest=/root mode=600"
192.168.3.60 | FAILED! => {
    "changed": false,
    "checksum": "8add7a4e56ae6f7a1c6d0218ce757510d195bb3c",
    "failed": true,
    "msg": "Aborting, target uses selinux but python bindings (libselinux-python) aren't installed!"
}
192.168.3.70 | FAILED! => {
    "changed": false,
    "checksum": "8add7a4e56ae6f7a1c6d0218ce757510d195bb3c",
    "failed": true,
    "msg": "Aborting, target uses selinux but python bindings (libselinux-python) aren't installed!"
}

需要在客户端安装libselinux-python库

yum模块

[root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -m yum -a 'name=libselinux-python state=present'
192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,
    "msg": "warning: rpmts_HdrFromFdno: Header V3 RSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID c105b9de: NOKEY\nImporting GPG key 0xC105B9DE:\n Userid : CentOS-6 Key (CentOS 6 Official Signing Key) <centos-6-key@centos.org>\n Package: centos-release-6-5.el6.centos.11.1.x86_64 (@anaconda-CentOS-201311272149.x86_64/6.5)\n From   : /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6\n",
    "rc": 0,
    "results": [
        "Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, security\nLoading mirror speeds from cached hostfile\n * base: mirrors.zju.edu.cn\n * extras: centos.ustc.edu.cn\n * updates: mirrors.zju.edu.cn\nSetting up Install Process\nResolving Dependencies\n--> Running transaction check\n---> Package libselinux-python.x86_64 0:2.0.94-7.el6 will be installed\n--> Processing Dependency: libselinux = 2.0.94-7.el6 for package: libselinux-python-2.0.94-7.el6.x86_64\n--> Running transaction check\n---> Package libselinux.x86_64 0:2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1 will be updated\n--> Processing Dependency: libselinux = 2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1 for package: libselinux-utils-2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1.x86_64\n---> Package libselinux.x86_64 0:2.0.94-7.el6 will be an update\n--> Running transaction check\n---> Package libselinux-utils.x86_64 0:2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1 will be updated\n---> Package libselinux-utils.x86_64 0:2.0.94-7.el6 will be an update\n--> Finished Dependency Resolution\n\nDependencies Resolved\n\n================================================================================\n Package    Arch          Version               Repository   Size\n================================================================================\nInstalling:\n libselinux-python        x86_64        2.0.94-7.el6          base        203 k\nUpdating for dependencies:\n libselinux               x86_64        2.0.94-7.el6          base        109 k\n libselinux-utils         x86_64        2.0.94-7.el6          base         82 k\n\nTransaction Summary\n================================================================================\nInstall       1 Package(s)\nUpgrade       2 Package(s)\n\nTotal download size: 394 k\nDownloading Packages:\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------\nTotal                                           210 kB/s | 394 kB     00:01     \nRetrieving key from file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6\nRunning rpm_check_debug\nRunning Transaction Test\nTransaction Test Succeeded\nRunning Transaction\n\r  Updating   : libselinux-2.0.94-7.el6.x86_64                               1/5 \n\r  Installing : libselinux-python-2.0.94-7.el6.x86_64                        2/5 \n\r  Updating   : libselinux-utils-2.0.94-7.el6.x86_64                         3/5 \n\r  Cleanup    : libselinux-utils-2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1.x86_64                   4/5 \n\rCleanup    : libselinux-2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1.x86_64                         5/5 \n\r  Verifying  : libselinux-python-2.0.94-7.el6.x86_64                        1/5 \n\r  Verifying  : libselinux-utils-2.0.94-7.el6.x86_64    2/5 \n\r  Verifying  : libselinux-2.0.94-7.el6.x86_64                               3/5 \n\r  Verifying  : libselinux-2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1.x86_64                         4/5 \n\r  Verifying  : libselinux-utils-2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1.x86_64                  5/5 \n\nInstalled:\n  libselinux-python.x86_64 0:2.0.94-7.el6                                       \n\nDependency Updated:\n  libselinux.x86_64 0:2.0.94-7.el6    libselinux-utils.x86_64 0:2.0.94-7.el6   \n\nComplete!\n"
    ]
}
192.168.3.60 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,
    "msg": "warning: rpmts_HdrFromFdno: Header V3 RSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID c105b9de: NOKEY\nImporting GPG key 0xC105B9DE:\n Userid : CentOS-6 Key (CentOS 6 Official Signing Key) <centos-6-key@centos.org>\n Package: centos-release-6-5.el6.centos.11.1.x86_64 (@anaconda-CentOS-201311272149.x86_64/6.5)\n From   : /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6\n",
    "rc": 0,
    "results": [
        "Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, security\nLoading mirror speeds from cached hostfile\n * base: mirrors.cn99.com\n * extras: mirrors.cn99.com\n * updates: mirrors.cn99.com\nSetting up Install Process\nResolving Dependencies\n--> Running transaction check\n---> Package libselinux-python.x86_64 0:2.0.94-7.el6 will be installed\n--> Processing Dependency: libselinux = 2.0.94-7.el6 for package: libselinux-python-2.0.94-7.el6.x86_64\n--> Running transaction check\n--->Package libselinux.x86_64 0:2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1 will be updated\n--> Processing Dependency: libselinux = 2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1 for package: libselinux-utils-2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1.x86_64\n---> Package libselinux.x86_64 0:2.0.94-7.el6 will be an update\n--> Running transaction check\n---> Package libselinux-utils.x86_64 0:2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1 will be updated\n---> Package libselinux-utils.x86_64 0:2.0.94-7.el6 will be an update\n--> Finished Dependency Resolution\n\nDependencies Resolved\n\n================================================================================\n Package                  Arch          Version               Repository   Size\n================================================================================\nInstalling:\n libselinux-python        x86_64        2.0.94-7.el6          base        203 k\nUpdatingfor dependencies:\n libselinux               x86_64        2.0.94-7.el6          base        109 k\n libselinux-utils       x86_64        2.0.94-7.el6          base         82 k\n\nTransaction Summary\n================================================================================\nInstall       1 Package(s)\nUpgrade       2 Package(s)\n\nTotal download size: 394 k\nDownloading Packages:\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------\nTotal                                            70 kB/s | 394 kB     00:05     \nRetrieving key from file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6\nRunning rpm_check_debug\nRunning Transaction Test\nTransaction Test Succeeded\nRunning Transaction\n\r  Updating   : libselinux-2.0.94-7.el6.x86_64                               1/5 \n\r  Installing : libselinux-python-2.0.94-7.el6.x86_64                        2/5 \n\r  Updating   : libselinux-utils-2.0.94-7.el6.x86_64                   3/5 \n\r  Cleanup    : libselinux-utils-2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1.x86_64                   4/5 \n\r  Cleanup    : libselinux-2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1.x86_64                         5/5 \n\r  Verifying  : libselinux-python-2.0.94-7.el6.x86_64                        1/5 \n\r  Verifying  : libselinux-utils-2.0.94-7.el6.x86_64                         2/5 \n\r  Verifying  : libselinux-2.0.94-7.el6.x86_64                               3/5 \n\r  Verifying  : libselinux-2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1.x86_64                         4/5 \n\r  Verifying  : libselinux-utils-2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1.x86_64            5/5 \n\nInstalled:\n  libselinux-python.x86_64 0:2.0.94-7.el6                                       \n\nDependency Updated:\n  libselinux.x86_64 0:2.0.94-7.el6    libselinux-utils.x86_64 0:2.0.94-7.el6   \n\nComplete!\n"
    ]
}

service 模块

[root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -m service -a 'name=sshd state=restarted'  #state属性有running,started,stopped,restarted,reloaded
192.168.3.60 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,
    "name": "sshd",
    "state": "started"
}
192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,
    "name": "sshd",
    "state": "started"
}

yum模块还是介绍下

[root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -m yum -a 'name=ntp state=present'    #state属性有absent,present,installed,removed,latest
192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false,
    "msg": "",
    "rc": 0,
    "results": [
        "ntp-4.2.6p5-1.el6.centos.x86_64 providing ntp is already installed"
    ]
}
192.168.3.60 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": false,
    "msg": "",
    "rc": 0,
    "results": [
        "ntp-4.2.6p5-1.el6.centos.x86_64 providing ntp is already installed"
    ]
}

script模块 远程执行脚本

[root@temp01 ~]# cat ansible.sh              #脚本内容
#!/bin/bash
echo "Hello world" >>/root/ansible.log
[root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -m script -a 'ansible.sh'
192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,
    "rc": 0,
    "stderr": "",
    "stdout": "",
    "stdout_lines": []
}
192.168.3.60 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,
    "rc": 0,
    "stderr": "",
    "stdout": "",
    "stdout_lines": []
}

[root@example_02 ~]# pwd          #跳转到客户端验证
/root
[root@example_02 ~]# cat ansible.log
Hello world

shell模块

shell 模块与command模块区别 ,shell支持管道符和变更,下面这个例子说明问题

[root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -m mommand -a 'cat /etc/passwd | grep root'
ERROR! this task 'mommand' has extra params, which is only allowed in the following modules: command, win_command, shell, win_shell, script, include, include_vars, add_host, group_by, set_fact, raw, meta
[root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -m shell -a 'cat /etc/passwd | grep root'
192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
operator:x:11:0:operator:/root:/sbin/nologin

192.168.3.60 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
operator:x:11:0:operator:/root:/sbin/nologin

file模块  

修改文件属性

[root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -m file -a 'path=/root/ansible.log owner=root mode=777 group=root'      #修改文件属性
192.168.3.60 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,
    "gid": 0,
    "group": "root",
    "mode": "0777",
    "owner": "root",
    "path": "/root/ansible.log",
    "secontext": "unconfined_u:object_r:admin_home_t:s0",
    "size": 12,
    "state": "file",
    "uid": 0
}
192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,
    "gid": 0,
    "group": "root",
    "mode": "0777",
    "owner": "root",
    "path": "/root/ansible.log",
    "secontext": "unconfined_u:object_r:admin_home_t:s0",
    "size": 12,
    "state": "file",
    "uid": 0
}

新建目录:类 mkdir -p

[root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -m file -a 'dest=/root/1/2/3/4/ mode=755 owner=root group=root state=directory'
192.168.3.60 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,
    "gid": 0,
    "group": "root",
    "mode": "0755",
    "owner": "root",
    "path": "/root/1/2/3/4/",
    "secontext": "unconfined_u:object_r:admin_home_t:s0",
    "size": 4096,
    "state": "directory",
    "uid": 0
}
192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,
    "gid": 0,
    "group": "root",
    "mode": "0755",
    "owner": "root",
    "path": "/root/1/2/3/4/",
    "secontext": "unconfined_u:object_r:admin_home_t:s0",
    "size": 4096,
    "state": "directory",
    "uid": 0
}


[root@example_02 ~]# ll
total 48
-rw-------. 1 root root  1106 Jul 11 05:26 anaconda-ks.cfg
-rwxrwxrwx. 1 root root    12 Dec 30 02:53 ansible.log
-rw-------. 1 root root  1052 Dec 30 01:09 hosts
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 23089 Jul 11 05:26 install.log
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root  6240 Jul 11 05:24 install.log.syslog
[root@example_02 ~]# cd 1/2/3/4/                        #转到客户端验证
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root
[root@example_02 4]# pwd
/root/1/2/3/4

删除目录文件

[root@temp01 ~]# ansible all -m file -a 'dest=/root/1/2/3/4/  state=absent'
192.168.3.60 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,
    "path": "/root/1/2/3/4/",
    "state": "absent"
}
192.168.3.70 | SUCCESS => {
    "changed": true,
    "path": "/root/1/2/3/4/",
    "state": "absent"
}

[root@example_02 ~]# cd 1/2/3/4            #跳转验证
-bash: cd: 1/2/3/4: No such file or directory
[root@example_02 ~]#
最后修改:2020 年 01 月 29 日 09 : 02 PM
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